Electron shells filled in violation of Madelung's rule

Electron shells filled in violation of Madelung's rule[20] (red)
Period 4Period 5Period 6Period 7
ElementZElectron ConfigurationElementZElectron ConfigurationElementZElectron ConfigurationElementZElectron Configuration
Lanthanum57[Xe] 6s2 5d1Actinium89[Rn] 7s2 6d1
Cerium58[Xe] 6s2 4f1 5d1Thorium90[Rn] 7s2 6d2
Praseodymium59[Xe] 6s2 4f3Protactinium91[Rn] 7s2 5f26d1
Neodymium60[Xe] 6s2 4f4Uranium92[Rn] 7s2 5f36d1
Promethium61[Xe] 6s2 4f5Neptunium93[Rn] 7s2 5f46d1
Samarium62[Xe] 6s2 4f6Plutonium94[Rn] 7s2 5f6
Europium63[Xe] 6s2 4f7Americium95[Rn] 7s2 5f7
Gadolinium64[Xe] 6s2 4f7 5d1Curium96[Rn] 7s2 5f76d1
Terbium65[Xe] 6s2 4f9Berkelium97[Rn] 7s2 5f9
Scandium21[Ar] 4s2 3d1Yttrium39[Kr] 5s2 4d1Lutetium71[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1Lawrencium103[Rn] 7s2 5f147p1
Titanium22[Ar] 4s2 3d2Zirconium40[Kr] 5s2 4d2Hafnium72[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d2Rutherfordium104[Rn] 7s2 5f146d2
Vanadium23[Ar] 4s2 3d3Niobium41[Kr5s1 4d4Tantalum73[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d3Dubnium105[Rn] 7s2 5f146d3
Chromium24[Ar4s1 3d5Molybdenum42[Kr5s1 4d5Tungsten74[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d4Seaborgium106[Rn] 7s2 5f146d4
Manganese25[Ar] 4s2 3d5Technetium43[Kr] 5s2 4d5Rhenium75[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d5Bohrium107[Rn] 7s2 5f146d5
Iron26[Ar] 4s2 3d6Ruthenium44[Kr5s1 4d7Osmium76[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d6Hassium108[Rn] 7s2 5f146d6
Cobalt27[Ar] 4s2 3d7Rhodium45[Kr5s1 4d8Iridium77[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d7
Nickel28[Ar] 4s2 3d8 or
[Ar4s1 3d9(disputed)[21]
Palladium46[Kr4d10Platinum78[Xe6s1 4f14 5d9
Copper29[Ar4s1 3d10Silver47[Kr5s1 4d10Gold79[Xe6s1 4f145d10
Zinc30[Ar] 4s2 3d10Cadmium48[Kr] 5s2 4d10Mercury80[Xe] 6s2 4f145d10
The electron-shell configuration of elements beyond hassium has not yet been empirically verified, but they are expected to follow Madelung's rule without exceptions until element 120.


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